Elliott County, it is generally understood, was named in honor of Judge John M. Elliott, now (December 1873) a resident of Owingsville, Bath County, Kentucky; and circuit judge of the 13th judicial district. Judge E. is a native of Scott County, Virginia; was born May 16, 1820; studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1843; practiced with fine success at Prestonsburg, Floyd County, Kentucky; was a representative from Floyd, Pike, and Johnson counties in the Kentucky Legislature, in 1847; a representative in the U. S. Congress for six years, 1853-59; and again elected representative in the legislature from Floyd and Johnson counties, 1861-63. He was indicted for treason with 31 others, November 6, 1861, in the U. S. District Court at Frankfort. He, although present from September 4th to October 4th, did not occupy his seat during the December adjourned session of the legislature. The house, December 21, 1861, expelled him for being "directly or indirectly connected with, and giving 'aid and comfort' to the Confederate Army, repudiating and acting against the government of the United States and the Commonwealth of Kentucky." He had thus actively united his fortunes with the case of the South; was a member of the Provisional Congress of the Confederate States, which assembled at Richmond, February 18, 1862, representing the 9th Kentucky District; and a member of each successive Regular Congress of the Confederate States, representing the 12th Kentucky District, up to the time of the downfall of the Confederacy; over three years in all. In 1868, several years after his return to Kentucky, he was elected, for six years, or until September 1874, circuit judge of the district embracing Bath, Montgomery, Powell, Estill, Owsley, Lee, Wolfe, Morgan, Elliott, and Menifee counties.
First Battle of Cynthiana. - On July 17, 1862, the Confederate general, John H. Morgan, with a force 816 strong when he started nine days before, upon this first Kentucky raid, attacked the Federal forces at Cynthiana; nearly 500 strong (mainly home guards), under Col. John J. Landram, who after a brave resistance were overpowered and defeated, and the town captured. The Federal pickets were surprised and captured or driven in. Before the commander had time to dispose his force, the Confederates commenced shelling the town, producing a wild consternation among the inhabitants. Capt. William H. Glass, of the Federal Artillery, occupied the public square, from which point he could command most of the roads. Another force took position on the Magee Hill Road, south of the town, along which the Confederates were approaching. A third detachment was instructed to hold the bridge on the west side of the town, towards which Morgan's main force was pouring. Capt. Glass opened on Morgan's battery, which was planted on an eminence a quarter of a mile distant, between the Leesburg and Fairground turnpikes. The Confederates were now approaching by every road and street, and deployed as skirmishers through every field, completely encircling the Federals. Their battery on the hill having ceased its fire, Capt. Glass with grape and canister swept Pike Street from one end to the other. By this time the contestants were engaged at every point. The fighting was terrific. The Federals commenced giving way. The force at the bridge, after a sharp fight, was driven back, and a Confederate cavalry charge made through the streets. A portion of the Federals made a stand at the railroad depot. A charge upon the Confederate battery at the Licking bridge, was repulsed, and the Confederates, in turn, charged upon the force at the depot; while another detachment was pouring deadly fire from the rear, about 125 yards distant.
It was here that Col. Landram was wounded; and Thomas Ware, one of the oldest citizens; Jesse Currant; Thos. Rankin; Capt. Lafe Wilson; and others were killed, besides a number wounded. Unable to stand the concentrated fire, the handful of Federals that were left commenced a precipitate retreat. The 7th Kentucky Cavalry, posted north of town to hold the Oddville Road, were soon overpowered and compelled to surrender. Three-fourths of the Federal force had now been killed, wounded, or captured. The Confederates held undisputed possession. The prisoners were marched into town and lodged in the upper room of the courthouse, and their parole made out and signed that night.
The First White Child born in Louisville was Capt. John Donne.
The First Shingle Roof building was in the fort at 12th Street, erected by John Campbell, the year not known.
First Brick Houses. - The first brick house was built in 1789 by Mr. Kaye, ancestor of Frederick A. Kaye (mayor a number of years, 1838-45), on Market, between 5th and 6th streets; the second, by Mr. Eastin, on the north side of Main, below 5th; and the third, by Mr. Reed, at the southwest corner of Main and 6th streets.
Several Mounds of remarkable size are in Madison County. There are two on Caldwell Campbell's farm, eight miles southwest of Richmond, on the turnpike to Lancaster; one small, the other about 225 feet long, 50 feet wide, and 35 feet high. Four miles west of this, below Kirksville, is a mound about 40 feet high, 225 feet long, and 45 feet wide.
Black Band Iron Ore, a stratum ten inches thick, ferruginous chocolate-colored, peculiar in its nature, color, composition, and paleontology, is found at Airdrie and elsewhere. It has been discovered in one place at a depth of 25 feet, as thick as 19 inches, and yielding 36.8% of metallic iron.
Iron Ore from the Jenkins ore bank, two and one-half to three feet in thickness, yielded 43.56% of metallic iron; and that from the Hokins ore bank, on Muddy River, 47.159% of iron.